Under Article 28 of the Paris Agreement, a country cannot announce its withdrawal from the agreement until three years after it enters into force in the country concerned, i.e. on November 4, 2016 in the case of the United States. Later, the White House said the United States would abide by the four-year withdrawal process.  On November 4, 2019, the administration announced a formal intention to resign, which takes 12 months. Until the withdrawal came into effect, the United States was required to meet its obligations under the agreement, such as the obligation to continue reporting its emissions to the United Nations.  The withdrawal came into effect on November 4, 2020, the day after the 2020 U.S. presidential elections.  The implementation of the agreement by all member countries is evaluated every five years, with the first evaluation in 2023. The result will be used as an input for new national contributions from Member States.
 The inventory will not be national contributions/achievements, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. This is not the first time the United States has not denounced an international climate agreement. The United States did not ratify the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, although it played an important role in its creation. In this case, the United States became a signatory to the agreement, but signalled almost immediately that it did not intend to assume its responsibilities. Nations concluded the Paris climate agreement in 2015. Credit: Chesnot/Getty While the United States and Turkey are not part of the agreement, as countries have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue, as Appendix 1 countries, to prepare national communications and an annual inventory of greenhouse gases.  Countries are also working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   Nearly 200 countries signed the agreement in 2015 and committed nationally to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Each country has set its own goals, and many rich countries, including the United States, have also agreed to help the poorest countries bear the costs of climate change. “We know that the UK and the EU, as well as the UN Secretary-General, are planning an event on 12 December, the fifth anniversary of the conclusion of negotiations on the Paris Agreement, where they will try to achieve more ambition,” said Andrew Light. Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to the fight against global warming.
 There is no mechanism for a country to set an emission target for a specified date, but any target should go beyond the previous targets. The United States formally withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would return to the agreement after his inauguration.  In a June 1, 2017 televised address to the White House Rose Garden, Trump said, “To fulfill my solemn duty to protect the United States and its citizens, the United States will withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement,” adding, “Ultimately, the Paris Agreement at the highest level is very unfair to the United States.”  He said that the agreement, if implemented, would cost $3 trillion in GDP and 6.5 million jobs in the United States.  He added that it would “undermine our economy, cripple our workers” and “effectively decapitate our coal industry.”  He said he was open to renegotiating the agreement or negotiating a new agreement, but European and UN leaders said the pact “cannot be renegotiated at the request of one party.”  Trump also criticized the Green Climate Fund and called it a program to redistribute wealth from rich to poor countries.  On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration sent an official message to the United Nations that the United States is one of the United States.