Unlike other trade deals, where disputes are usually referred to a neutral third party, the US and China have decided to resolve all the issues themselves. The agreement creates so-called bilateral assessment and dispute resolution offices to counter and assess complaints. The agreement also provides for an appeal process that will address issues ranging from mid-level officials to the offices of the U.S. Trade Representative and the Chinese Vice Premier. Trump said his deal was a blessing for farmers, who are among those most affected by the trade war. The deal involves significant commitments from China to buy agricultural products as well as aircraft, pharmaceuticals, oil and gas. I encourage members to continue to work through the many WTO forums and mechanisms to address their concerns and explore possible solutions. Measures taken outside these collective processes increase the risk of escalation in a confrontation that will have no winners and could quickly lead to a less stable trading system. The interruption of trade flows will threaten the global economy at a time when the economic recovery, while fragile, is becoming increasingly evident around the world.
I again call for restraint and dialogue as the best way to address these issues.234 An August 2019 Harvard CAPS/Harris poll showed that 67 percent of registered voters wanted the U.S. to confront Beijing because of its trade policy, while 74 percent said U.S. consumers bore the bulk of the tariff burden. Mark Penn, the co-director of Harvard`s CAPS/Harris Poll, said the poll showed strong U.S. public support for Trump`s trade policy against China, and said, “You realize that tariffs can have a negative impact on jobs and prices, but they think the fight is the right one.”  RECOGNIZE that it is in the interest of both countries that trade increases and that international standards are met in order to promote market-based outcomes. The agreement also contains commitments, at least on paper, to halt the forced transfer of US technology to Chinese competitors. Companies have long complained that they have had to give up valuable technologies and trade secrets to do business in China. China has pledged not to require such transfers, even if companies apply for certain administrative licenses or authorizations. In December 2019, the South China Morning Post reported that due to the trade war and the Chinese government`s crackdown on shadow banking, Chinese investment in production grew at the slowest pace since records began.  In August 2017, Robert Lighthizer investigated China`s allegations of unfair trade practices.    An analysis by the Peterson Institute for International Economics showed that in January 2018, i.e. before the start of the trade war, China imposed uniform tariffs of 8% on average on all its importers.
By June 2019, tariffs on U.S. imports had climbed to 20.7 percent, while tariffs on other nations were reduced to 6.7 percent.  The analysis also showed that average U.S. tariffs on Chinese goods rose from 3.1% in 2017 to 24.3% in August 2019.  Minxin Pei, a scholar of Chinese politics at Claremont McKenna College in California, argued that Xi`s ambition for China`s renaissance as a world power had proven hollow by the continuation of the trade conflict.  A September 2018 article by Brahma Chellaney stated that the U.S. trade war with China should not mask broader opposition to mercantilist practices in trade, investment, and lending.  Tariffs imposed by the United States and China on imports from the other decimated bilateral trade in 2018 and 2019. . . .